Alsace has more than double the total number of municipalities of the Netherlands which, in spite of having a population nine times larger and a land area four times larger than Alsace, is divided into just 390 municipalities (gemeenten). There are only a few exceptions: Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres (5.75 sq mi). Additionally some cities had obtained charters during the Middle Ages, either from the king himself, or from local counts or dukes (such as the city of Toulouse chartered by the counts of Toulouse). Quelques villes de France. This uniformity of status is a legacy of the French Revolution, which wanted to do away with the local idiosyncrasies and tremendous differences of status that existed in the kingdom of France. French administrative divisions, however, have remained extremely rigid and unchanged. La liste des communes par département est accessible en cliquant sur le nombre de communes du département. Mainly in this category are the traditional syndicates of communes. These structures have been left untouched by the Chevènement law, and they are on the decline. Terminology. For the government of Paris in 1871, see, France territorial subdivision for municipalities, A request that this article title be changed to, Communes farthest away from the capital city of France, Learn how and when to remove this template message, French villages destroyed in the First World War, Saint-Remy-en-Bouzemont-Saint-Genest-et-Isson, Beaujeu-Saint-Vallier-Pierrejux-et-Quitteur, List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, "Code officiel géographique — Présentation", Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, "Code des collectivités d'outre-mer (COM)", "Le code officiel géographique (COG), avant, pendant et autour (Version 3, volume 1)", "Circonscriptions administratives au 1er janvier 2015 : comparaisons régionales", "25 Jahre Gemeindereform Baden-Württemberg; hier: Neuordnung der Gemeinden", "Statistique des communes (fin de l'Ancien Régime et xixe siècle)", Direction générale des collectivités locales (DGCL), Ministry of the Interior, "Répartition des EPCI à fiscalité propre par département au 01/01/2007", Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, Le développement de l'intercommunalité: la révolution discrète, Complete lists of cities and municipalities in France, List of administrative divisions by country,, Fourth-level administrative country subdivisions, Articles that may contain original research from January 2015, All articles that may contain original research, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, these municipal bodies were not democratic; they were usually in the hands of some rich bourgeois families upon whom, over time, nobility had been conferred, so they can be better labeled as. From 1794 to 1977—except for a few months in 1848 and 1870-1871—Paris had no mayor and was thus directly controlled by the departmental prefect. In many places, the local feudal lord (seigneur) still had a major influence in the village's affairs, collecting taxes from tenant-villagers and ordering them to work the corvée, controlling which fields were to be used and when, and how much of the harvest should be given to him. Communes de france - Base des codes postaux Ce jeu de données a été publié le 28 mai 2019 et mis à jour le 31 mai 2019 à l'initiative et sous la responsabilité de Mohamed BADAOUI Enrichissement du fichier fourni par la Poste avec les noms de régions, départements et commune en lettre minuscule ainsi que leurs codes INSEE respectifs. These cities were made up of several parishes (up to ca. Moreover, citizens from one village may be unwilling to have their local services run by an executive located in another village, whom they may consider unaware of or inattentive to their local needs. Une aide pour la généalogie, avec accès aux archives départementales et communales de France. Those without fiscal power, the loosest form of intercommunality. La ville la plus riche de France de moins de 20.000 habitants est Marne la Coquette (81 746 € par ménage) Voici dans l'ordre alphabétique la liste des villes françaises métropolitaines. La liste des 36682 communes regroupées par département est consultable dans le menu ville ou via la recherche au dessus de la carte. Annuaire des villes et mairies de France. Administration territoriale de la France. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. In many areas, rich communes have joined with other rich communes and have refused to let in poorer communes, for fear that their citizens would be overtaxed to the benefit of poorer suburbs. All of these communes would have equal status, they would all have a mayor at their head, and a municipal council elected by the inhabitants of the commune. Mairies de est un site privé indépendant de l'administration française. A commune in France is a local 'administrative unit' and can be as small as a few hectares - or as large as Paris! Trouvez les coordonnées d'une mairie pour vos démarches administratives, ou alors le plan d'une ville grâce à They wanted to do away with all the peculiarities of the past and establish a perfect society, in which all and everything should be equal and set up according to reason, rather than by tradition or conservatism. The municipal councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the commune for a 6-year term. Second, the United States, with a territory fourteen times larger than that of the French Republic, and nearly five times its population, had 35,937 incorporated municipalities and townships at the 2002 Census of Governments, fewer than that of the French Republic. As a consequence, civil servants and bureaucrats are the ones setting up the agenda and implementing it, with the elected representatives of the communes only endorsing key decisions. Vous pouvez obtenir ici le nom de toutes les communes de France, avec leur code INSEE et leur code postal. Before the revolution, France's lowest level of administrative division was the parish (paroisse), and there were up to 60,000 of them in the kingdom. ), Alpes-de-Haute-Provence communes & places. This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. Communes themselves then form part of one of the 96 departments of France, which themselves are part of the 22 regions of metropolitan France. 86.7 percent of the population of metropolitan France. Administrative divisions of France; List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants; List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants (2006 census) List of communes in France (2008 version) List of submerged places in France Le tableau suivant donne la liste des communes, en précisant leur code Insee, leur code postal principal, leur arrondissement, leur canton, leur appartenance aux principales structures intercommunales, leur superficie et leur population, d'après les chiffres de l'Insee issus du recensement 2017 [Note 1], [3]. In other words, just 8 percent of the French population live in 57 percent of its communes, whilst 92 percent are concentrated in the remaining 43 percent. Terri Friendly relations with Mexico, Georgia and Bharitya Commune. In exchange for the creation of a community, the government allocates money to them based on their population, thus providing an incentive for communes to team up and form communities. Declared hostility against the French government in exile, â€¦ Unfriendly relations with Flanders-Wallonia, Switzerland, Kingdom of Spain and Canada. [citation needed], Moreover, intercommunal structures in many urban areas are still new, and fragile: Tensions exist between communes; the city at the center of the urban area often is suspected of wishing to dominate the suburban communes; communes from opposing political sides also may be suspicious of each other. The size of the municipal council, the method of electing the municipal council, the maximum allowable pay of the mayor and deputy mayors, and municipal campaign finance limits (among other features) all depend on the population echelon into which a particular commune falls. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune. On 14 July 1789, at the end of the afternoon, following the storming of the Bastille, the provost of the merchants of Paris, Jacques de Flesselles, was shot by the crowd on the steps of Paris City Hall. The biggest changes occurred in 1831, when the French Parliament re-established the principle of the election of municipal councils, and in 1837 when French communes were given legal "personality," being now considered legal entities with legal capacity. Elle constitue l'échelon de base des divisions administratives du territoire français. The expression "intercommunality" (intercommunalité) denotes several forms of cooperation between communes. Ce jeu de données détaille la liste des communes existantes françaises. Almost every town or village you have ever heard of in France is a commune, although occasionally very small places are part of an adjoining commune, or a cluster of scattered small villages might have different village names but share the same commune name (this will be marked on the village signpost as you enter). In areas where languages other than French are or were spoken, most place-names have been translated into a French spelling and pronunciation, such as Dunkerque (Duinkerke in Dutch), Toulouse (Tolosa in Occitan), Strasbourg (Straßburg in German), Perpignan (Perpinyà in Catalan), and many place names derived from Gaulish or Latin. Since the PLM Law of 1982, three French communes also have a special status in that they are further divided into municipal arrondissements: these are Paris, Marseille, and Lyon. The new, larger, commune of Paris was set up under the oversight of Emperor Napoléon III in 1859, but after 1859 the limits of Paris rigidified. Un an plus tard : 1 852 panneaux agrémentaient déjà le blog, plus de 30 personnes avaient adhéré à l’idée et contribuaient régulièrement à enrichir ce blog participatif. French law makes allowances for the vast differences in commune size in a number of areas of administrative law. Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials (mayor and a "conseil municipal") with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. There have long been calls in France for a massive merger of communes, including by such distinguished voices as the president of the Cour des Comptes (the central auditing administrative body in France). Par exemple, les enregistrements avec comme valeur "2018" dans le champ Année correspondent aux communes françaises existantes au 1er Janvier 2018. Mergers, however, are not easy to achieve. The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. In some urban areas like Marseille there exist four distinct intercommunal structures! From 41,000 communes at the time of the French Revolution, the number decreased to 37,963 in 1921, to 36,569 in 2008 (in metropolitan France). They usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them. Since then, tremendous changes have affected France, as they have the rest of Europe: the Industrial Revolution, two world wars, and the rural exodus have all depopulated the countryside and increased the size of cities. However, many smaller communes have retained their native name. Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. Today, French communes are still very much the same in their general principles as those that were established at the beginning of the Revolution. In all other French communes, the municipal police are under the mayor's supervision. Syndicates can be set up for a particular purpose or to deal with several simultaneous matters. The Revolutionaries were inspired by Cartesian ideas as well as by the philosophy of the Enlightenment. The small Alsace region has more than double the number of municipalities compared to the large and populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia (396 Gemeinden in September 2007). Consequently, the Alsace region—despite having a land area only one-fifth the size and a total population only one-sixth of that of its neighbor Baden-Württemberg—has almost as many municipalities. Lyon Département : Rhône (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes). This is what the Chevènement law was concerned with, and it distinguished three structures with fiscal power: Apart from the above cases, the communes with the fewest inhabitants in the French Republic are: The largest commune of the French Republic is, The smallest commune of the French Republic is, In metropolitan France the largest commune is the commune of, The commune of the French Republic farthest away from Paris is the commune of, In continental France (i.e. So far, however, local conservatism has been strong, and no mandatory merging proposal ever has made it past committee in the French Parliament. In this area as in many others, the work of the National Assembly was, properly speaking, revolutionary: not content with transforming all the chartered cities and towns into communes, the National Assembly also decided to turn all the village parishes into full-status communes. This is because the suburban communes refused an urban community for fear of losing too much power, and opted for a community of agglomeration, despite the fact that a community of agglomeration receives less government funds than an urban community. French communes were created at the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789–1790. In Toulouse, on top of there being six intercommunal structures, the main community of Toulouse and its suburbs is only a community of agglomeration, although Toulouse is large enough to create an Urban Community according to the law. The French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, 'things held in common'. Les communes de France avec leur code postal et leur code INSEE. In metropolitan France 57 percent of the 36,683 communes[5] have fewer than 500 inhabitants and, with 4,638,000 inhabitants, these smaller communes constitute just 7.7 percent of the total population. Communes de moins de 10 habitants en 2017. Thus, they set out to establish administrative divisions that would be uniform across the country: the whole of France would be divided into départements, themselves divided into arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons, themselves divided into communes, no exceptions. The communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. A help for genealogy, with access to departmental and communal archives of France. They had been emancipated from the power of feudal lords in the 12th and 13th centuries, had municipal bodies which administered the city, and bore some resemblance with the communes that the French Revolution would establish except for two key points: In the north, cities tended to be administered by échevins (from an old Germanic word meaning judge), while in the south, cities tended to be administered by consuls (in a clear reference to Roman antiquity), but Bordeaux was administered by jurats (etymologically meaning "sworn men") and Toulouse by capitouls ("men of the chapter"). Some in the National Assembly were opposed to such a fragmentation of France into thousands of communes, but eventually Mirabeau and his ideas of one commune for each parish prevailed. (2) Within the current extent of overseas France, which has remained unchanged since the independence of the New Hebrides in 1980. [citation needed]. En France, la commune est une collectivité territoriale1, consistant en un territoire administré par une municipalité, formée par un conseil municipal, le maire ainsi que, le cas échéant, un ou plusieurs adjoints. ② Maps of France The commune (French pronunciation: ​[kɔmyn]) is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. European France excluding, The commune of the French Republic with the shortest name is the commune of. On 14 December 1789, the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) passed a law creating the commune, designed to be the lowest level of administrative division in France, thus endorsing these independently created communes, but also creating communes of its own. The Chevènement law tidied up all these practices, abolishing some structures and creating new ones. [2][3] This is a considerably higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still largely reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The rights and obligations of communes are governed by the Code général des collectivités territoriales (CGCT) which replaced the Code des communes (except for personnel matters) with the passage of the law of 21 February 1996 for legislation and decree number 2000-318 of 7 April 2000 for regulations.[10][11]. Usually, one contained only a building committee (conseil de fabrique), made up of villagers, which managed the buildings of the parish church, the churchyard, and the other numerous church estates and properties, and sometimes also provided help for the poor, or even administered parish hospitals or schools. [1] "Commune" in English has a historical bias, and implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history (after the rising of the Paris Commune, 1871, which could have more felicitously been called, in English, "the rising of the City of Paris"). It would take Napoleon I to re-establish peace in France, stabilize the new administrative system, and make it generally accepted by the population. Vous trouverez ici la liste de toutes les mairies de France classées par département.